Being Digitally Organized

john-schnobrich-520019-unsplash

Writing a dissertation or thesis isn’t all about the writing. Academic writing requires a lot of moving parts in order to be successful. Writing is, of course, important (words won’t magically appear for you), but it’s your little habits and practices that will make all the difference in timeliness and completion. Brilliance on its own isn’t enough to get you to your defense date. You’ll need organization to meet your deadlines, avoid unnecessary mistakes, tedious work, and/or a complete disaster (e.g. misplacing key resources, losing research, technical glitches, etc.).

Organization goes beyond the physical collection of papers, books, and research you might collect. In fact, chances are that most of your resources and research will be digital. Most research, even in the humanities, includes online and database research. Undoubtedly, you’ll have on hand dozens (perhaps hundreds) of online articles and statistics in your possession. Moreover, eBooks are finding a new prevalence in serious research and writing. Beyond eBooks and articles are digital newspapers, webpages, blogs, and even social media. Managing physical sources, papers, and books is only half of the battle. You’ll need to think about what to do with all that data you’ll undoubtedly accumulate. And no, leaving it all on your computer’s desktop isn’t an option! You’ll need to develop effective strategies and organizational techniques to manage your digital sources and files.

Thankfully, digital organization is rather simple. It doesn’t require much effort beyond instituting a few commonsense practices that will surely save you time, effort, and frustration. Additionally, there are a number of tools that can help you become a better digital organizer so you can focus on the stuff that matters—like writing!

brina-blum-156977-unsplash

Say NO to USBs!

Don’t use a USB stick! Please, please let go of those awful USB sticks. They’re a disaster waiting to happen. It’s not unusual for writing to be a mobile activity. More likely than not, you’ll need to work somewhere other than your home. That means you’ll have to take your work with you. So, it’s important to plan how you’ll take your work around with you.

While working as a librarian, it wasn’t unusual to find doctoral students using USB sticks to carry work around and save working versions of their dissertation. I’d always advise them to avoid using USB sticks. One, they’re ridiculously easy to lose. Two, they’re easily corruptible. Beyond these reasons however, USB sticks are not great for organization. They make it easy to lose, misplace, or save over important drafts of your work. Furthermore, they add the extra burden (and potential disaster) of moving your work from the USB stick to your main computer. USB sticks invite messiness, adding a unnecessary burden to your writing flow.

paul-csogi-18594-unsplash

Do your work in the cloud

Embrace cloud storage. I love cloud storage. I used it almost extensively while I was writing my dissertation. I’m a huge fan of Google Drive, as I could switch between multiple computers without having to worry about losing my information on whatever I was working on. With dissertation writing, you’re going to need to keep everything organized and safe. You need to have the confidence that some sort of disaster isn’t going to befall you. Cloud storage allows you to work on the same document on any computer. No more losing USB sticks or worrying about losing your information. Moreover, Google’s Backup and Sync operates seamlessly with Windows. No more downloading or uploading because it’ll do it all for you. You can even work on documents offline as Backup and Sync will upload your documents for you once you’re safely back to Wi-Fi.

Can’t I just save everything on my laptop? Yes you can, but you’re also inviting the risk of disaster in case something happens. I always encourage students to use backups. Multiple if necessary. There’s no downside of using cloud storage, especially if it saves a local version of the file on your computer. Cloud storage is also amazing for organizing large groups of files (especially all those article pdfs). You can carry your entire research library with you wherever you go. This is especially helpful if you’re researching on a database

 

C_Zcp4kWsAIuR75

Don’t let your desktop become your own version of Where’s Waldo

For the love of God clean your desktop! Take a look at your desktop. Go ahead and look carefully. Can you see the wallpaper in the background or is it blocked by the clutter of files, pdfs, and shortcuts? If you can’t see your background it’s time to start organizing! Think of your computer as your digital desk. Having everything on the desktop (like papers strewn on a desk) isn’t necessarily helpful. For one, it’s time consuming to continuously scan over your desktop just to find one file. It’s also bound to cause you unnecessary anxiety—where did I put my file again? Yeah, you want to avoid that whenever possible.

Take stock of everything on your desktop. Is everything there necessary? Begin by deleting any old files and shortcuts that you never, ever use. Next look over any pdfs and Word files. Are these relevant to your research? Should they be somewhere else (like a research folder)? Start by creating categorical folders for research (articles, eBooks, papers, etc.). You can even break that down into categories such as those you need to read, important articles, or even by author. There are a variety of ways of breaking down and categorizing information. Think of a system that works for you and stick to it. Make modifications if necessary, but stick to it!

sear-greyson-671095-unsplash

Don’t let this happen to you. 

Scan your articles after reading (Don’t print everything and don’t rely on paper). Some students have a bad habit of printing everything. Yes, it’s sometimes easier to read on paper, but be selective about what you print. Besides killing trees, printing dozens of articles creates an instant mess. Where are you going to store those papers? Will you carry them around with you everywhere? I’ll sometimes see students walk in carrying a mound of papers. It looks physically exhausting and potentially dangerous if you lose them—especially if you write notes to yourself on those articles. Let’s face it, printed articles are messy. Alternatively, try printing out only one or two articles at a time (what you reasonably can read in one or two sittings). Make your notes, highlights, and scribbles like usual. Once you’ve made your notes, scan your article and add it to your cloud drive. This ensures that your scribbles and scrawls are safe, without having to lug everything around. Moreover, you can always reprint the article if you want to add further notes. This is helpful if you just can’t stand reading articles on a computer screen.

Take digital notes. Digital note taking has been around forever. Evernote is the most well known, but there are plenty of choices when it comes to note taking. Some even simulate taking notes on paper (for touch based devices). Apple, Microsoft, and Google all have their own versions of note taking apps and software. Play around with a few and choose one that works well with whatever device you’re using. Some, like Evernote, will even allow you to take a picture of your handwritten notes, allowing you to upload it instantly to the cloud. Digital notes can help you with jotting down ideas and organizing your thoughts.

Above all, be sure to develop a strategy for saving and accessing all the data. Don’t wait to get organized. Start now and make it part of your research routine!

 

Photos by Brina Blum,  John Schnobrich, Paul Csogi, and Sear Greyson on Unsplash

 

 

Staying Organized = Success

2bd8be

Right off the bat, I want to dispel a common myth going around. This is the myth that your messiness and disorganization is a sign of higher intelligence and/or creativity. Now it’s true that some research has shown that messy and untidy individuals typically have a higher IQ and are more creative (though I’m not sure how one rates creativity). Unsurprisingly, this idea has floated all across social media as a justification for being messy. Without a doubt this new idea brought great joy to the droves of disorganized folks across social media. Science has seemingly proved that smart people are untidy! After years of shame, there’s finally scientific evidence to justify one’s messiness! In fact, I wouldn’t put it past some folks to intentionally be more messy and disorganized just to prove they’re smart! After all it’s all a sign of higher intelligence, right? So let’s leave a few more papers around in hopes that it’ll spur our imaginations! Sorry to burst your bubble, but that’s not how creativity works. Your messy and disorganized desk, work area, and/or computer doesn’t make you a genius. It might only be a sign that you need to straighten up a bit.

Many people find justification for being messy using Albert Einstein’s famous quote, “If a cluttered desk is a sign of a cluttered mind, of what, then, is an empty desk a sign?” This sure sounds great, but let’s face it. None of us are Einstein (no matter how messy our desk is). Einstein would’ve been Einstein with or without a messy desk. Moreover, it’s your writing and research habits that you need to worry about. Einstein isn’t going to be writing your dissertation, you are! And just because messiness worked for Einstein doesn’t mean it will work for you. Now it may be true that messiness might be a sign of intelligence and high creativity. However, this doesn’t give you a license to be untidy or to excuse messiness. Moreover, certain types of writing don’t work well in a messy environment. Messiness may not matter so much when writing a novel, but it will definitely hinder progress with a dissertation or thesis. Academic writing (especially when it’s for a professor or committee) often requires more organization than others. Part of this is due to the requirements you’ll need to adhere to for your committee, professor, school, etc. Furthermore, academic writing typically involves strict deadlines. You’ll want to stay on schedule when writing a dissertation (especially if you need to graduate at a certain time). Consequently, disorganization isn’t going to work in your favor. 

Messiness isn’t a virtue, and it definitely won’t help you finish your dissertation. Don’t delude yourself into thinking that your own messiness is somehow special (it’s not). Writing a dissertation necessitates careful organization and planning. It requires the ability to find information and research quickly and efficiently. Furthermore, it requires long-term planning over the course of months and years. You may believe that your organizational “system” of paper stacks, USB drives, and books strewn across the floor is working, but it won’t a year from now. A dissertation requires the use and citing of dozens of articles and books. Depending on your field, you may also have mounds of qualitative and/or quantitative data to sort. As such, it’s imperative that this information remain organized and accessible. Nothing will set you back further than missing qualitative/quantitative data.

None of this means that your desk, writing area, or computer must be spick and span. We all have our own own quirks and methods when it comes to organization. That being said, any organizational system must actually be a coherent and logical system. Therefore, don’t think about it in terms of only remembering where things are. Remembering where you put and/or saved an article isn’t a system. You should instead know where an article, book, or file is because it has a designated space (either physically or virtually). Simply put, you don’t need to waste time remembering where something is. Ultimately your memory will fail you. Rummaging through papers, flipping through books, and checking USB drives for missing information wastes time and is mentally exhausting. Trust me, you’re not going to want to search for that missing article you found a year ago when you’re near the end. You’ll need all that mental and physical energy just to finish (especially when working against the clock—i.e., graduation deadline).

It was always a struggle to keep things organized. But it’s well worth it. Over the next two posts I’ll give you some tips for remaining organized. Today it’s important to remain both digitally and physically organized. Organization is more than just papers and books. It involves a concerted effort to keep your digital files easily accessible and safe. The first post will be on digital organization where I’ll share some tips on how cloud storage and desktop management can help keep you on track. This will be followed by how to keep your old-school papers, articles, and books organized. So stay tuned for more soon! 

 

 

 

 

Finding Your (Middle) Motivation

warren-wong-258992

At a certain stage, writing can feel like a slough. The slow and steady pace you’ve established begins to affect you. It’s easy to let the day in, day out grind of writing wear down your motivation. If you’re writing well, you’ve probably established a daily ritual and pattern to keep making steady progress. However, it’s hard to keep that motivation going as you begin to reach the middle stages of your writing project. I believe this is especially true for dissertation and thesis writing. There comes a point where it really starts to dawn on you how long it’s going to take to finish. For better or worse, you’ve settled in for the long haul.

Middles are often depressing. After several months (maybe a year) of writing, you realize how much is left to do. You might realize that a significant amount of work needs to be done. The psychological effect of what’s left to do can easily erode your motivation. It’s around the midpoint that our self-doubt begins to awaken. You start doubting your progress, work, and ability to finish. Furthermore, you begin to feel that you don’t have enough left in the tank to finish. This is especially true if your first few chapters were challenging or slow. It’s easy to let those earlier challenges cloud your judgement about the rest of the work. As such, you’re left asking if you have anything left to give. How do you face the remaining months (or year) of writing?

The middle of a dissertation or thesis is a crucial time. It requires you to find a way to refuel and recommit yourself to the project. Moreover, that re-commitment is important, even if things are going well. Meaning that it’s important that you continue building on that current success. Doing so also requires preparing yourself for those confidence and motivational issues that will likely arise. Otherwise, you might slip (back) into some negative habits. For example, it’s at the middle that you might start to feel the pressure build.  You might start to notice those deadlines around the midway point. Six months ago, you weren’t worried about those deadlines. Suddenly, you are more aware of those looming committee and graduation deadlines. At such a point it’s not unusual to feel a little anxiety. Committee members are asking for chapters, and decisions need to be made about graduation. Will you meet the graduation deadline? Therefore, it’s perfectly natural to feel anxiety about those second-half deadlines. It’s imperative that you remain motivated!

How do you stay motivated in the middle? That motivation is going to be different for each person. Each one of you will have personal struggles, challenges, and life issues that you’ll need to work through. There’s no way to predict what challenges await you as write. However, here are a few practices that can keep you motivated in the middle.

Re-evaluate your strategy. Ask yourself how you are doing. Are you missing your deadlines? Has your writing been excruciating or painful? Do you feel exhausted from the last several chapters? It’s time to change your approach if you answered yes to any of those questions. Just because you’ve made progress doesn’t mean that there isn’t room for improvement. The midway point is a time to critically evaluate your progress so far. Don’t be afraid to judge your current writing practices and routines. Now is the time to start planning for the remainder of the journey. Therefore, you’ll need to determine if you have enough left in the tank to cross the finish line. If you feel drained, lethargic, and/or depressed, then you need to refuel! Remember, a dissertation or thesis is all or nothing. A half-completed dissertation won’t get you to graduation!

Re-commit. Evaluate yourself. Are you still excited about your work? Do you enjoy your topic? Do you enjoy writing? If you answered no then it’s time to re-commit to yourself and your work. Explore the reasons why you picked this topic and re-examine your goals. What did you set to accomplish or discover? Have you lost sight of your focus or purpose? Obviously, your main goal is to graduate. However, that alone isn’t going to be enough get your through those last chapters. There’s no such thing as powering through a dissertation. Finishing requires re-committing to those research goals you set for yourself. Use those goals as a reminder of the importance of your work. Remind yourself that your work has value and is necessary. No one else is going to finish or complete what you’ve started!

ian-schneider-66374

Re-discover your passion!

Re-discover your motivation. If you’re having trouble with re-committing, then it might be time rediscover your motivation. This might require a return to the research. Return to the books and journals and look for areas to explore. Perhaps there is new research available that might help get your over that writer’s hump. Moreover, research has a way of igniting your mind. It’s possible that you’ve starved your mind during the writing process. Your lack of motivation might be a symptom of a starved mind. Feed your mind!

Re-visit your deadlines. Did you set realistic deadlines for yourself? If you’re feeling pressured or stressed then it’s time to ask if your deadlines are feasible. It’s not unusual to overestimate your progress, especially early on. You want your deadlines to be realistic, otherwise those deadlines can become a catalyst for failure. Pay special attention to the deadlines you’ve negotiated with your committee. Don’t be afraid to ask for extensions to those deadlines. It may become necessary to give yourself more breathing room. Yes, you want to finish dissertation and graduate. However, a breakneck pace is only going to disappoint yourself or lead to burnout.

Re-evaluate, re-commit, re-discover, re-visit, and celebrate your progress! Be optimistic because you’re half-way done!

 

Photos by Warren Wong and Ian Schneider on Unsplash

 

 

The Writing War

fab-lentz-253417

Writing often feels like trench warfare, and the blank page is our field of war. We struggle against the enemy as we push forward in the hopes of making progress. Writing can become constant battles of small gains and losses over a long period of time. Consequently, the battle of progress is wearing and draining. Those constant gains and losses of “two sentences forward and one sentence back” destroys our motivation to continue. The war of progress is one that pits us against our ultimate enemy: ourselves.

I very much understand the war of small gains and losses that characterizes dissertation/thesis writing. While writing my dissertation, I frequently fought against my dissertation. I strove to conquer it with a constant bombardment of words, sentences, paragraphs, and my own sense of perfection. In my mind, I made the dissertation an enemy I needed to conquer. In my mind, conquering meant perfection. Consequently, in an effort to make it “sound right,” every word and sentence suffered heavy scrutiny and tinkering. Inevitably, the battle wore me down. My gains grew smaller and my loses greater. As my frustration increased, I regularly contemplated the “nuclear” option: deleting what I had and starting over.

Does this sound familiar to you? Has your writing become a never-ending war of attrition? Thankfully, writing doesn’t have to be this way. Moreover, fighting against our work is counterproductive. It’s a war that we can’t win. We can’t win it because it’s a war we fight against ourselves. Making progress in our writing requires that we shed off that warring mentality. Writing is not a war or an adversary to overcome. We must instead learn to let go of those adversarial tendencies.

pan-xiaozhen-254933Don’t fight a war when writing. Let go.

Let go of perfection. To be clear, there is nothing wrong with being detail oriented. Any writer will need to pay attention to the details at some point. However, perfection can inhibit progress. Constant debate over every single word, sentence, and paragraph makes writing slow and cumbersome. It’s also mentally taxing. Long-term arguing with yourself over the use of a certain word or phrase blocks your mind from seeing the whole picture. Perfectionism keeps you from doing the important stuff. The time you spend debating over small words or phrases is time better spent writing and finishing your chapter or section. Highlight the phrase or sentence for later if you really can’t make a decision. You can always come back to it later. Remember, an imperfect chapter is better than a perfect sentence! So save the debate for the editing stage.

Let go of deletion. Related to perfection, constant deletion of the same sentence or paragraph will frustrate you to no end. It drives me crazy to hear when students delete and start over large portions of their papers. Never delete anything unless you’re sure that you’re not going to use it! It makes no sense to rewrite the same sentence a thousand times. Thankfully, technology makes writing incredibly easy. Instead of deleting, keep a running reserve of the unused phrases and sentences at the bottom of the page. With this reserve, you can cut and paste these phrases or sentences into different areas. In addition, it’s especially helpful when starting a new paragraph or section. Keeping those unused words or phrases provides choices and alternatives while you sort out how your paper should sound. Remember, you’ll probably change your mind several times. Rewriting the same thing you’ve already deleted wastes valuable writing time!

Let go of self-criticism. You are not the enemy! Embrace yourself and resist the urge to be self-critical. Yes, you will be unhappy with your writing from time to time. Few of us are ever 100% satisfied with everything we write. You must learn to recognize that and let go of the urge to go to war with you writing. Acknowledge your imperfections, accept your limitations, and embrace your work. There will always be room for growth and improvement. Your dissertation, thesis, or paper will not be perfect! There’s no such thing as a perfect work. The sooner you can embrace this, the happier you’ll be. And the more progress you’ll make!

Make writing, not war!

Photos by Fab Lentz and pan xiaozhen on Unsplash

Writing Without Distractions

charlz-gutierrez-de-pineres-64078

You’ve settled in to type. Committed and ready to work, you have each item ready: the coffee is hot, the books are open, and the computer waits for your brilliant words. Placing your hands on the keyboard, everything seems perfect and ready for you. As you start writing, your phone vibrates with a Facebook notification. Suddenly you find yourself scrolling your feed, browsing Instagram, and checking your email.

After 15 minutes of social media browsing, you attempt to force yourself back to writing. Ready again, your phone buzzes. This time it’s a message from your best friend asking if you want to go out tonight. After sorting out your plans, you try once again to get back to writing.  But despite your effort, you discover that the words refuse to flow. Wringing your hands, you stare at the screen in disbelief as the blinking cursor appears to taunt you. You had lofty goals, but now all of your time has evaporated. You’re now distracted and disinterested in writing.  Frustrated, you decide to close the books and return to Facebook.

This is a common occurrence for writers. Despite our best efforts, the outside world calls us away from completing our papers. We’re all susceptible to being distracted. Distractions come in many forms. One of the most common distractions is social media, which is especially challenging for high school and college students. However, we’re all at risk to the dangers of distraction. We continually overestimate our own abilities to juggle between writing, social media, texting, and our own responsibilities. Furthermore, continued distractions and multitasking might actually be rewiring our brains.

Distractions add up. More distractions mean less writing, and less writing adds more pressure to meet deadlines. Distractions are especially costly in academic writing. It can have disastrous consequences on our grades and degree progress. Short term projects (term and research papers) are particularly high pressured. Distractions can lead to a failure to turn in work on time and/or poor quality writing.  Long term projects (dissertations and theses) create cumulative pressures. Constant distractions and subsequent lack of progress can lead to self-doubt, frustration, and shame.

We have a hard to remaining focused when doing something we don’t like. I’ve never encountered anyone who actually enjoyed writing a paper, dissertation, or thesis. This doesn’t mean that this kind of writing can’t be enjoyable, however completion of this type of writing requires that we work a little harder to remain focused and motivated.

There’s not a one-size-fits-all approach to overcoming distractions. But there are things you can do that will give you the best chance to avoid them.

Create a routine. Writing is very much a mental discipline. The mental preparation to write is as important as actually writing. Preparation requires training our minds to enter into an almost meditative state. Get your mind into writing mode! Very few of us can write on a whim. Instead, we usually need to gently ease into the writing state. Develop a routine that prepares and relaxes your mind for writing. Start your routine at least 15 minutes before it’s time to write. This might involve enjoying a cup of coffee, reading for pleasure, or even meditation. Avoid anything that makes you upset, worried, or anxious. Also try to keep away from things you enjoy too much. Don’t start a Netflix binge (e.g. Stranger Things) right before it’s time to write!

anthony-tran-378336Create a relaxing routine before writing

Follow a writing schedule. If possible, try to write at the same time each day. Creating a consistent writing schedule will help to train your brain that it’s time to write. An inconsistent writing schedule makes it harder to create a routine, thus making it harder to avoid distractions. A fixed schedule also gives you a tangible goal. The knowledge that you always write one hour in the morning or afternoon encourages you to use that time wisely. It’s your writing time, therefore any messages, texts, or phone calls can wait until your time is done. If necessary, share your writing schedule with your family and friends. This way they’ll know you’re unavailable during your scheduled time. After a few days of this, you’ll require less mental preparation to write. A consistent schedule helps to rewire your brain to write, making writing less exhausting. Your brain will be ready to write when it’s time to write.

Smaller blocks of time are best. The longer we sit, the more prone we are to distraction. Moreover, it’s also bad for our health (poor health is also distracting). It’s a fantasy to believe that you can write for 8-10 hours straight. More likely, you’re only going to be truly productive for maybe half of that time. It’s harder to sit in one area for several hours. After a few hours you’ll be looking for anything to relieve you from the task at hand. And those distractions add up, making it harder to recover from each distraction.  It’s nearly impossible to avoid distractions after an hour at the computer. But it’s easier to keep motivated with smaller blocks of time. Think about it. Can you really sit in one location for more than a couple of hours?

Find a good writing environment. Writing requires a comfortable place where you can remain focused. Some people write best in the home. Others enjoy the presence of others (e.g. the library or Starbucks). Make sure that your environment is free from anxiety or stress. Don’t write in places that are loud or near people that distract you. Avoid writing in areas that remind you of household chores. Find a consistent zone that’s dedicated to the purpose of writing. This means avoid writing in areas that you usually watch TV, play video games, or do work. Claim your space!

freestocks-org-175144Find a comfortable and relaxing space for writing

Move the smartphone. Even the presence of a smartphone can be distracting. Move the phone out of your sight. A phone, even on silent, is a reminder of the world of distractions. A supposedly harmless look at Twitter or Instagram can eat up precious time for writing. Make it hard to get your phone. At the very least, move your phone into another room or turn it off. Indulge yourself with social media after your writing time, but not during it.

Turn off the internet. This is the nuclear option. You probably won’t want to do this if you need the internet to do research as you write. But if you absolutely can’t focus, then turn it all off (except the computer of course). Unplug the Ethernet cable, turn off the modem, or hide away the wireless router. Make it difficult to turn it back on. Do whatever it takes to keep you from distractions. Turning on the phone is easy, and this fools us into believing that a short look at Facebook won’t take up much time. Disconnecting entirely helps you to think twice about browsing.

Photos by Charlz Gutiérrez De Piñeres, Anthony Tran, and freestocks.org, on Unsplash

 

Reading to Write

rawpixel-com-191131

 If you don’t have time to read, you don’t have the time (or the tools) to write. Simple as that – Stephen King, On Writing

A recent article from the New York Times describes Americans as poor readers. We’re notoriously bad at reading comprehension. Consequently, we’re not reading enough to fully comprehend complex books and articles. This shouldn’t come as a surprise. We’ve known for years that Americans simply aren’t reading enough. According to a 2015 Pew Research study, there is an overall downward trend in reading among American adults. Frighteningly, this same study shows that over a quarter (26%) of American adults haven’t read a book in a year. Though two years have passed, I’m willing to bet that this trend hasn’t improved. In fact, it’s probably worse.

Now we’re certainly reading. Everyday we’re bombarded with the electronic word through social media. And while we tend to focus on the ‘media’ part of social media, we’re actually reading a lot of content across posts, tweets, and forums. Personally speaking, I’m constantly bouncing back and forth across posts and article links from morning till night. Unfortunately, the time we spend on social media isn’t creating better readers. As a matter of fact, it’s making us worse. Social media and the internet has led to an array of bad reading habits.

I don’t want to disparage against social media. I still think that it has the potential to create well-informed students. However, we’re going to need to adjust our social media habits if we want to become better readers and students. Furthermore, I believe that better reading habits, including more quality reading, will improve our writing skills.

In the past, I’ve had a number of students ask: “how can I learn to write better?” My response is usually: “read more.” There’s no secret magic formula to writing well. It’s not a mysterious skill that only a few possess. I believe that every single person has the potential to become a good writer. Does this mean that we all have the potential to be the next Shakespeare? Probably not, but there is absolutely nothing stopping you from becoming an effective and skilled writer. Writing is a skill, and you must immerse yourself in it to develop that skill.

Nothing will turn you into a good writer overnight. Much like learning a new language, writing skills take practice and patience. Yet, there are things you can do to speed up that process. Practice makes perfect of course, and learning to write requires doing more of it. However, that is only half of it. One of the best (and easiest) things you can do is read more!

Academically speaking, you’ll want to read more in the field you’re currently studying. Reading Harry Potter probably won’t help you write a research paper (you should still read Harry Potter). This means that you’ll need to tailor your academic reading to the top books and articles in your field. We learn by imitating and emulating the writing styles of others. The pressure to read is enhanced for academic writing. No one is born, even naturally gifted writers, with the ability to write great academic papers, theses, or dissertations. Yet, we expect ourselves to write these papers without reading and drawing upon prior examples. More often than not, we wait to read these things until it’s time to write the paper, thesis, or dissertation. Thus, we’ve added the extra strain of learning how to write as we’re writing. An almost impossible task!

Do you want to become a better academic writer? Do you want to remove the fear and anxiety you feel when faced with writing a final paper? If the answer is ‘yes’ then start reading!

Tips for reading to write:

Start by setting aside 30 minutes a day to read an academic book or journal article. I know that reading a book or article doesn’t rank very high on your to-do list. God knows that there are some days that I don’t feel like reading a theology or philosophy text. Nevertheless, you need to develop your academic skills and keep them sharp. Begin with a minimum of 30 minutes. As you continue, you’ll probably want to increase that to 45 minutes or an hour. The most important thing is to not rush it. You won’t become a better writer (and scholar) by cramming information. Writing is a lifelong process. It won’t take long to get better at it, but you’ll always have more to learn.

When reading, focus on unfamiliar vocabulary and academic words. Write down any words you don’t know or understand. Search for those words using Google. You’ll want to develop and fine-tune those comprehension skills. If you don’t understand a word or phrase, then look it up. A better understanding of your field or topic will equip you for communicating and explaining it to others.

Read a wide variety of quality sources. Try to mix it up and read a large sample of what your academic field offers. Strive to read both books and articles. Draw from a diverse range of authors. In addition, find a balance between past and contemporary sources. Some fields (particularly STEM) draw heavily from contemporary research. Others (such as the humanities) incorporate classic texts from different eras. Knowing the major works, figures, and researchers in your field will help develop your reading list.

Be critical. Not everything you read will be a good example of academic writing. This is where the value of variety pays off. Reading more will enable you to find the common issues and problems that plague even the most gifted intellectuals. As you read, you’ll become better at distinguishing good writing from bad. Compare the writing styles of different authors. Pay particular attention to those authors who write with clarity and conciseness. The overall trend in academics is direct language and active voice.

Don’t be afraid to read outside your field. Whenever possible, expand your horizon to related fields and topics. Compare your field’s style with others. Learn how to incorporate the best of others into yourself. Consequently, more knowledge will prove to be an asset later on.

You have to invest time to become a better academic writer. It’s easy to be absorbed by whatever is happening on Facebook, Reddit, or Twitter. Just remember, the time you spend on social media is time you could spend reading. Skillful writing begins with making time for reading.

Photo by rawpixel.com on Unsplash

When Do I Cite?

becca-tapert-391599

“When do I cite?”

Students ask me this question all the time. It’s such an innocuous question that, until recently, I never gave it much thought. When asked, I usually responded as any good librarian or teacher might by saying, “Cite whenever you quote or paraphrase someone else’s work.” Now at the time, this seemed clear and obvious to me. However, after getting the same question semester after semester, I started to ask myself exactly how clear and useful my response was. Moreover, I never considered how stressful citing sources can be for a student. Because in addition to citing correctly, a student needs to know where and when to cite their sources! This undoubtedly adds extra pressure to the student as he or she is writing a paper. Furthermore, it isn’t only an undergraduate problem. I’ve seen the same anxiety and problems occur at both the masters and doctoral levels. In fact, I’d even argue that the stress is worse at those levels. The stakes are higher and there’s more information to cite. Furthermore, the fear of citing (and doing it correctly) can destroy our confidence with second-guessing and frustration. This is detrimental for dissertation and theses writers!

The Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS) and the American Psychological Association (APA) both provide tips for citing.

CMOS 16th edition recommends:

Whether quoting, paraphrasing, or using others’ ideas to advance their own arguments, authors should give explicit credit to the source of those words or ideas. – pg. 621.

APA 6th Edition is equally vague:

Cite the work of those individuals whose ideas, theories, or research have directly influenced your work. They may provide key background information, support or dispute your thesis, or offer critical definitions and data. – pg. 169

Not particularly helpful, is it? Neither tells me how much or how little I should cite. Now I’m being a bit facetious here; both CMOS and APA have incredibly useful information for academic writing. However, there is only so much these guides can tell you. After all, no manual knows you and your research exactly.

Writing papers, especially dissertations and theses, involves a great deal of hard work. Think of all the hours you’ve put into your research. The research process can be both rewarding and grueling. It provides us with immense joy when we learn and make connections. Research can enlighten us with new ideas and topics. But let’s be honest, research takes time and attention. Any paper, from a 10-page research paper to the 200-page dissertation, often requires a proportional amount of research time equal to (and often more than) the time it takes to write. Consequently, after all this work, you should want to show it off!

Let’s put aside the question of citing the work of someone else by changing our focus. Consider the problem from your perspective. Think of citing as showing your research work. For example, remember every math class you’ve ever taken. It was never enough to show that you had the answer. With every math problem it’s required to show your work. Your teacher or professor wants to know how you reached the answer. The answer doesn’t make sense without the steps and equations that lead to it.

Citing your sources is much the same way. At certain places in your paper you’ll want to show how you arrived at such an idea, question, or conclusion. Think of citing as showing your work. Citing is more than an exercise we go through to avoid plagiarism. Consider it the manner in which you can show off all the hard effort you’ve done during the research process.

I’m a big fan of using footnotes (I live and breathe the Chicago style). When I write, I often think of my footnotes as my mathematical equations. It’s my way of showing how I worked through the problem. With each footnote I come closer to showing the reader how and why I made my conclusions. Citing shouldn’t be a tedious chore, rather it should be one of the more enjoyable parts of academic writing. It adds a little extra validation to the time and effort we put into the research process.

This is why the research process is so important. When writing, you should know your sources inside and out. Ideally you’ve set aside plenty of time to explore and think about your sources. Problems with citing (especially when to cite) often arise because we haven’t given enough time to research. Without adequate preparation time, our sources appear to us as a jumbled mess. Messy research typically translates into a messy paper. We don’t know how to use our sources. Consequently, we don’t know how to properly cite them. I’ve seen this phenomenon manifest into two common types of papers: excessive and absent.

An excessive paper overuses the sources. The paper reads like a mismatched book report. It’s a Frankenstein paper. Bits and pieces are hobbled together, creating something that’s often horrific. As such, the citations are confused and sporadic. Usually this translates into some things being cited while others are ignored. Or, and this is very unfortunate, excessive papers become plagiarized papers. Haste and unfamiliarity can lead to nasty habits like lazy paraphrasing, copy and pasting, and huge block quotes. And herein lies the problem: you don’t know what to cite because it’s all someone else’s work! Thus, it feels like you should cite every single sentence!

In the second type of paper, absent, there is little to no citing. You’re unfamiliar or uncomfortable with your sources. Thus, in this scenario, you don’t use them enough (if at all). Now much of this might be due to a lack of resources. If you don’t have anything to cite, then naturally the sources are absent. However, I don’t think this is always the case. I’ve read plenty of papers with a decent reference list. The student just didn’t know how to use them in the paper. It’s hard to show others your work when you haven’t taken the time to work it out yourself.

But with both errors I notice the same thing: sporadic and inconsistent citing. Thus, it’s completely understandable that this translates into a paper that never quite shows the research as intended. Again, think about math class. It’s impossible to answer the question if you don’t understand the background work behind it (addition/subtraction, multiplication, division, algebraic formula, and so on). Showing your work requires knowing the work. And when you know the work, you know how to show it properly.

Citing and research are intimately connected. Answering the question, “When do I cite?” begins with the research process. Knowing your sources is the first step toward a well-cited paper!

Look for more on citing in later posts! I’ll write more about the nuts and bolts on citing. Stay tuned!

Photo by Becca Tapert on Unsplash